Vitamins A & D3
Vitamin A refers to a family of fat-soluble retinoids, which include retinol, retinal and retinoic acid, plus provitamin A carotenoids, such as beta-carotene. They perform three basic functions within the body: vision, the growth and development of many types of tissues, and immunity. Several different cells in the eye (retina, cornea and the epithelium) depend on the presence of vitamin A for the maintenance of the structural integrity of these cells for optimal visual health. Dietary sources high in vitamin A include beef liver, carrots, sweet potato, chicken liver, spinach, fortified milk, mangos and collard greens.
Recommended by Research
|Principle Roles in the Body|
(retinol, retinal and retinoic acid,
as well as provitamin A carotenoids,
such as beta-carotene)
General DV is 5,000 IU; however, the DV
for pregnant and nursing women is 8,000 IU.
Avoid beta-carotene if you smoke.
(D3 known as cholecalciferol derived from fish oil and lanolin and D2 known as ergocalciferol derived from vegetarian/vegan sources)
DV is 400 IU; however, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Food and Nutrition Board recommends between 600 IU and 4000 IU depending on life-stage and gender.